Calluses are composed of the same material as corns. Calluses, however, develop on the ball or heel of the foot. The skin on the sole of the foot is ordinarily about 40 times thicker than the skin anywhere else on the body, but a callus can even be twice as thick. A protective callus layer naturally develops to guard against excessive pressure and chafing as people get older and the padding of fat on the bottom of the foot thins out. If calluses get too big or too hard, they may pull and tear the underlying skin. Clawfoot and Abnormally High Arches. Clawfoot, or pes cavus, is a deformity of the foot marked by very high arches and very long toes. Clawfoot is a hereditary condition, but it can also occur when muscles in the foot contract or become unbalanced due to nerve or muscle disorders. An overly high arch (hollow foot), in general, can cause problems. Army studies have found that recruits with the highest arches have the most lower-limb injuries and that flat-footed recruits have the least. Contrary to the general impression, the hollow foot is much more common than the flat foot. Foot pain in the heel is a common foot problem and disorder experienced during middle and old age. Our foot carries all the human body weight so when we perform any activities the heel area, with the heel bone (calcaneus - the largest bone in the foot), often supports most of the weight. About 80 percent of the foot's stability is provided by the arch area joint locking mechanisms when the foot absorbs the weight of the body during walking or running. The plantar fascia and muscles, tendons, and ligaments provide the other 20 percent. Blisters often cause They form in areas where there has been excessive amounts of pressure and friction. They may be accompanied with redness, swelling, and recurrent pains that keep you from walking normally. Bony growths and prominences may make blisters more likely, and when there is friction and rubbing, the body may even lay down more bone, making the prominence more prominent. This in turn leads to even greater side of foot pain , and is usually a runaway problem '" it just gets worse and worse until it is treated. If you are experiencing this foot pain at an alarming regularity, you need to take some curative measures. These remedies can be adopted at home or at a clinic as well. It really depends on the severity and the frequency of the pain. Some home remedies may provide you instant relief but do nothing in the long run, whereas, some remedies suggested or provided by a doctor will cure the problem in the long run, but do nothing to relieve you of temporary pain. As a result, you must adopt a plan that envelops both these forms of remedies, and carry out a suitable plan of physiotherapy for yourself. For this you need to go to a podiatrist a podiatrist is a foot specialist who gets the knowledge and experience after years of studies. A podiatrist can tell you about the problem of and the type of pain you are suffering from by checking your foot. The most common questions a podiatrist can ask you could be; what type of shoes you normally wear and what type of physical activities you perform that might be resulting in foot pain It is not necessary that the podiatrist can tell you about the problem just by looking at your foot sometimes several equipments utilize for this job to be done. In today's world where fashion rules, lack of willingness to buy more comfortable shoes can lead to disaster. However, with the use of insoles for high heel shoes, ball of foot pain can be relieved with consistent wear. It is advisable to choose shoes that have a heel with a less than 2" heel and with a wider-profile heel such as a wedge to avoid future ball of foot pain. Be sure to elongate foot muscles with a stretch and have them massaged to encourage optimal blood flow to the feet.